m limiting the number of their children. Evaluations of population policy ommendations, therefore, must include specific designations of what mts as a population problem and of what interests individuals and societies re in their children. Research is definitely needed to explore more fully the lificance and meaning of children to parents in a wide variety of circum-nces. Often, in discussions of population policy, there are allusions to the use of jpaganda. This word threatens to create a credibility gap. If by propaganda mean trying to persuade people that a certain policy is in their interest, :hout giving them the facts that will allow them to decide whether it is ually in their interest, we violate the canons of veracity. Moreover, we do t satisfy the criterion of giving people as many of the facts as possible, and ice do not respect their potential to make a morally correct decision and act upon it. >idly Imagining How Others Are Affected by Our Actions In some of the literature, there is a distinct elitist strain, implying that y certain people are in a position to formulate population policy and that rest of mankind must be propagandized, won over by incentives, or npelled to act in ways considered to be desirable by the experts. In const to such elitism, ethically acceptable population policies should be based sympathetic understanding of the conditions of life and of the aspirations the people who will be affected. To guarantee this, many voices must be ird. Black people in the United States are among those who are making parent the value of wide and diverse participation in the planning process i thereby extending the actualization of democratic ideals and the human-tion of social institutions. Ways must always be sought to assure that vivid ages of how people live, and of what they feel and desire, will guide and ipe the planners and their work. iversalizing Loyalities: Impartiality To strive for impartiality or universal loyalties is to strive to discount the luence upon our moral judgments of particular interests and passions. For imple, we demand of a judge that he not try his own son and that he qualify himself in an antitrust suit involving a company in which he is a nificant shareholder. Similarly, both our constitutional provisions for sepa-e branches of government and our continuing quest for fair judicial processearing and child rearing will generally benefit most by having relatively large families or even as many children as they can afford.